National Historic Landmarks: 2,600 Locations and Counting

From sea to shining sea, these are 15 of America’s best historic landmarks

Since 1960, the National Historic Landmark program has marked around 2,600 locations of special significance to the foundation and development of the United States. The sites range from The Alamo in San Antonio to the Historic Williamsburg in Virginia.

Almost all locations are found within the U.S., its territories, or areas the U.S. used to control such as the Federated States of Micronesia. Only one site lies in a completely sovereign nation that has never experienced any U.S. administration—the North African country of Morocco. 

Morocco was one of the first countries to recognize the U.S. as a sovereign nation by order of Sultan Sidi Mohammed ben Abdallah on December 20, 1777. Due in part to the treaty of peace and friendship the two nations signed in 1786 (which created the longest unbroken diplomatic relationship in U.S. history), Morocco bestowed a sprawling mansion (now called the Tangier American Legation) upon the young nation in 1821.

The mansion is situated in the medina or walled city of Tangier, once Morocco’s diplomatic capital. The building has served many purposes throughout the years including acting as a consulate, espionage headquarters, and Peace Corps training facility. It became a historic landmark in 1982 and is still officially owned by the U.S. It is leased to the Tangier American Legation Institute for Moroccan Studies which continues the nearly 250-year friendship between the two countries.

National Historic Landmarks Program

National Historic Landmarks are historic properties that illustrate the heritage of the United States. The over 2,600 landmarks come in many forms: historic buildings, sites, structures, objects, and districts. Each National Historic Landmark represents an outstanding aspect of American history and culture.

King Ranch © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

1. King Ranch

Date recognized as a National Historic Landmark: November 5, 1961

Location: Kenedy, Kleberg, Nueces, Willacy Counties, Texas

Description: In 1853, Captain Richard King purchased a creek-fed oasis in the Wild Horse Desert of South Texas. King now covers 825,000 acres—more land than the state of Rhode Island. Over 160 years, King Ranch led some of the first cattle drives, developed the Santa Gertrudis and Santa Cruz breeds of cattle, bred the finest Quarter Horses, and produced champion Thoroughbreds—all under its iconic Running W® brand. Today’s King Ranch is a major agribusiness with interests in cattle ranching, farming (citrus, cotton, grain, sugar cane, and turfgrass), luxury retail goods, and recreational hunting.

Tombstone © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

2. Tombstone Historic District

Date recognized as a National Historic Landmark: July 4, 1961

Location: Tombstone, Cochise County, Arizona

Description: It would be hard to get more Old West in Arizona historical towns than Tombstone (The Town Too Tough To Die). It is one of the most frequented destinations in the state for history buffs since this is home to the famous OK Corral where the Earp brothers and Doc Holliday gunned down the ornery Clanton-McLaury gang. But there’s a lot more to Tombstone including a rich silver mining history and clashes with the Apaches.

Tombstone has done much to preserve its Old West atmosphere. The main street is still dirt and cars must share the road with horses, Western wear shops, restaurants, and saloons line the wooden sidewalks. Historic sights include the Birdcage Theater and Tombstone Courthouse.

Fort Adams © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

3. Fort Adams

Date recognized as a National Historic Landmark: December 8, 1987

Location: Newport, Newport County, Rhode Island

Description: The second largest bastioned fort in the US, Fort Adams was the key to Narragansett Bay area defenses, from 1799 to 1945. It was designed to be the most heavily armed fort in America and to garrison 2,400 troops. Three tiers of guns defended Narragansett Bay’s East Passage. Situated at the mouth of the Newport Harbor, the fort offers a panoramic view of both Newport Harbor and the East Passage of Narragansett Bay.

USS Lexington © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

4. USS Lexington 

Date recognized as a National Historic Landmark: July 31, 1903

Location: Corpus Christi, Nueces County, Texas

Description: The Fore River Shipyard of Quincy Massachusetts built U.S.S. Lexington for the US Navy in the early days of World War II with the ship being commissioned in 1943. Named to commemorate the earlier Lexington which had been lost in the Battle of the Coral Sea, Lexington would serve the US Navy until the 1990s. Lexington was decommissioned in 1991. During its career, it received eleven Battle Stars and the Presidential Unit Citation. It was donated as a museum ship and is moored in Corpus Christi, Texas.

The Breakers © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

6. The Breakers

Date recognized as a National Historic Landmark: October 12, 1994

Location: Newport, Newport County, Rhode Island

Description: The Breakers is a Vanderbilt mansion located on Ochre Point Avenue along the Atlantic Ocean. The Breakers is the grandest of Newport’s summer cottages and a symbol of the Vanderbilt family’s social and financial preeminence in the turn of the century America. Commodore Cornelius Vanderbilt (1794-1877) established the family fortune in steamships and later in the New York Central Railroad which was a pivotal development in the industrial growth of the nation during the late 19th century.

Read more: Newport Cliff Walk: Ocean Views, Mansions and more

The Alamo © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

7. The Alamo

Date recognized as a National Historic Landmark: December 19, 1960

Location: San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas

Description: In San Antonio, five missions were constructed between 1718 and 1720. Appropriately, the first of these was Mission San Antonio de Valero, later to be known as the Alamo. Remember the Alamo! It was the battle cry of Texas freedom fighters during the decisive Battle of San Jacinto led by Sam Houston against Mexico in April 1836. It was a memorial to the doomed defenders of the Spanish mission-turned Texas fort. The Alamo became a bloody battlefield and a hallowed final resting place for those who would never leave these grounds alive.

Read more: Remember the Alamo?

Colonial Williamsburg © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

8. Williamsburg Historic District

Date recognized as a National Historic Landmark: October 9, 1960

Location: Williamsburg (City), Virginia

Description: Colonial Williamsburg is the world’s largest living history museum with 301 acres featuring iconic sites, working tradespeople, historic taverns, and two world-class art museums. The city was founded as the capital of the Virginia Colony in 1699 and it was here that the basic concepts of the United States of America were formed under the leadership of George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, George Mason, and many others.

Read more: Colonial Williamsburg: World’s Largest Living History Museum

Skyline Drive © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

9. Skyline Drive

Date recognized as a National Historic Landmark: October 6, 2008

Location: Shenandoah National Park, Virginia

Description: The historic 105-mile Skyline Drive, a National Scenic Byway, traverses Shenandoah National Park, a beautiful, historic national treasure. The mountain-top highway winds its way north-south through Shenandoah’s nearly 200,000 acres along the spine of Virginia’s Blue Ridge Mountains. 75 scenic overlooks offer stunning views of the Shenandoah Valley to the west or the rolling Piedmont to the east. While you are gazing out at the views, keep a close eye on the road too, as deer, black bear, wild turkey, and a host of other woodland animals call Shenandoah home and regularly cross Skyline Drive in their daily travels.

Read more: Ride the Sky along Skyline Drive

Painted Desert Inn © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

10. Painted Desert Inn

Date recognized as a National Historic Landmark: May 28, 1987

Location: Navajo County, Arizona

Description: In its almost 100 years overlooking the Painted Desert, the inn has undergone many changes. The original building from the early 1920s was made of petrified wood. Today’s adobe facade dates to the 1930s renovation of the Painted Desert Inn.

The national historic landmark functions only as a museum now, with no overnight accommodation and food service. Interior displays highlight the building’s history, Route 66, and Civilian Conservation Corps. There are also restored murals by Hopi artist Fred Kabotie.

Read more: The Ultimate Guide to Petrified Forest National Park

Mount Washington Hotel © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

11. Mount Washington Hotel

Date recognized as a National Historic Landmark: June 24, 1986

Location: Carroll, Coos County, New Hampshire

Description: While the Mount Washington Hotel in Bretton Woods is tucked away from the main drag, it’s almost impossible to miss it with Mount Washington hovering over like a halo. Once you walk into the lobby, you’re transported back to 1902 when the hotel first opened. It’s even rumored that the owner’s wife, Carolyn, still lives in the hotel (don’t worry, a friendly tenant), and ghost aficionados jump at the opportunity to book her old quarters in Room 314.

Read more: The Uniqueness of the White Mountains

Palace of the Governors © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

12. Palace of the Governors

Date recognized as a National Historic Landmark: October 9, 1960

Location: Santa Fe, Santa Fe County, New Mexico

Description: Downtown Santa Fe’s Palace of the Governors on the plaza is one of the most iconic sites in the city. The oldest continuously inhabited building in the United States, it’s perhaps best known for the Native American market beneath its portal. But inside is a historic gem as well—the New Mexico History Museum which covers centuries of life in Santa Fe and hosts exhibitions related to the tri-culture of the Native Americans, Spanish, and Anglo peoples and cultures of New Mexico.

Read more: Santa Fe Never Goes Out of Style

The Strand © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

13. Strand Historic District

Date recognized as a National Historic Landmark: May 11, 1976

Location: Galveston, Galveston County, Texas

Description: Galveston’s Historic Strand District, or The Strand, is the heart of the island and a great place to shop, dine, and be entertained. Fronting Galveston Bay, The Strand is a National Historic Landmark that harkens back to Galveston’s heyday in the late 1800s and early 1900s. Many of the buildings here are more than a century old, stunning in their detail and craftsmanship. Storefronts here are a mix of antique shops, art galleries, souvenir shops, and more. The Strand serves as the commercial center of downtown Galveston. Places of interest include the Ocean Star Offshore Energy Center and Museum, Pier 21 Theater, the Texas Seaport Museum, and the tall ship Elissa.

Read more: I Still Dream of Galveston

Presidio la Bahia © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

14. Presidio Nuestra Señora de Loreto de la Bahía

Date recognized as a National Historic Landmark: December 24, 196767

Location: Goliad, Goliad County, Texas

Description: Presidio La Bahía is a fort located in Goliad, Texas. Its official name is Presidio Nuestra Señora de Loreto de la Bahía and it was built and utilized by the Spanish Army. The fort was originally founded in 1721 and it was home to many Texas Revolution conflicts including the Battle of Goliad and the Goliad Massacre.

Mesilla Plaza © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

15. Mesilla Plaza

Date recognized as a National Historic Landmark: July 4, 1961

Location: La Mesilla, Dona Ana County, New Mexico

Description: Mesilla did not become part of the United States until the mid-1850s but its history begins with the end of the Mexican-American War and the signing of the Treaty of Guadalupe. Soon after, the sleepy border town would become one of the most important towns in the West, playing a key role in Western expansion. By the mid-1800s, Mesilla’s population had reached 3,000 making it the largest town and trade center between San Antonio and San Diego and an important stop for both the Butterfield Stage Line and the San Antonio-San Diego Mail Lines.

Read more: La Mesilla: Where History and Culture Become an Experience

Worth Pondering…

The past itself as historical change continues to accelerate has become the most surreal of subjects—making it possible to see a new beauty in what is vanishing.

—Susan Sontag

Making Their Mark: America’s National Historic Landmarks

From sea to shining sea, these are 12 of America’s best historic landmarks

National Historic Landmarks are America’s most exceptional historic properties. Their stories reflect the breadth and depth of the American experience and capture the uniqueness of our communities by recognizing their most important historic treasures. Landmarks are conspicuous objects known to many through either their remarkable appearance or their compelling stories.

America’s historic landmarks include places where significant events occurred, where important Americans worked or lived, that represent the ideas that shaped the nation, that reveal the past or that are outstanding examples of design or construction.

Fort Toulouse © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

1. Fort Toulouse site

Date recognized as a National Historic Landmark: October 9, 1960

Location: Elmore County, Aabama

Description: In 1717, when this region was part of French Louisiana, the French built a fort near the strategically vital junction where the Tallapoosa and Coosa Rivers form the Alabama River. The fort was primarily a trading post where Indians exchanged fur pelts for guns and household items. There were no battles at the post as French diplomacy forged allies with the natives. The surrounding Indians wanted peace so they could trade with both the French and British.

A re-creation of the last or 3rd French fort built between 1749 and 1751, the outside walls are constructed of split timbers that were not strong enough to stop a cannon shot but were ample protection against musket fire. Fences enclose the sides and rear of the building. On the inside, posts sunk into the ground were joined with mortise and tenon joints. There were two barracks in the fort each had four rooms for use by the troops. Along the southern wall is an igloo-shaped bread oven.

Read more: History Comes Alive at Fort Toulouse-Fort Jackson State Historic Site

Hoover Dam © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

2. Hoover Dam

Date recognized as a National Historic Landmark: August 20, 1985

Location: Mohave County, Arizona and Clark County, Nevada

Description: Linking Arizona and Nevada, Hoover Dam is one of America’s great engineering marvels to date and a fantastic Arizona road trip. Completed in 1935, this massive and hard-to-miss structure crosses the Colorado River and sits at a total of 726 feet high and 1,244 feet long. You can drive or walk across the dam for free or take a tour of the dam. The visitor center provides information on the tours and has a café where you can stop for some basic grub.

Kennedy Compound © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

3. Kennedy Compound

Date recognized as a National Historic Landmark: November 28, 1972

Location: Hyannisport, Barnstable County, Massachusetts

Description: When the Kennedys needed to get away from the hectic world of politics for some peace and quiet, there was one place they always went to: Hyannis Port, Massachusetts. The Cape Cod destination has a rich history that first began in 1928 when Joe and Rose Kennedy purchased a family home in the area. After JFK, his brother Ted and his sister Eunice purchased the three surrounding estates, the Kennedy Compound was officially born.

Mesilla Plaza © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

4. Mesilla Plaza

Date recognized as a National Historic Landmark: July 4, 1961

Location: La Mesilla, Dona Ana County, New Mexico

Description: Mesilla did not become part of the United States until the mid-1850s but its history begins with the end of the Mexican-American War and the signing of the Treaty of Guadalupe. Soon after, the sleepy border town would become one of the most important towns in the West, playing a key role in western expansion. By the mid-1800s, Mesilla’s population had reached 3,000 making it the largest town and trade center between San Antonio and San Diego and an important stop for both the Butterfield Stage Line and the San Antonio-San Diego Mail Lines.

Read more: La Mesilla: Where History and Culture Become an Experience

Historic Jacksonville © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

5. Jacksonville Historic District

Date recognized as a National Historic Landmark: November 13, 1966

Location: Jacksonville, Jackson County, Oregon

Description: Jacksonville got its start as a gold rush town. Gold was first discovered at Rich Gulch in 1851. Within months, thousands were scouring the hills hoping to stake a claim. A thriving mining camp emerged along the gold-lined creekbeds and before long, the bustling camp was transformed into a town named Jacksonville.

More than 100 buildings are on the National Register of Historic Places. In 1966, the entire town of Jacksonville was designated a National Register of Historic Landmark.

Fort Ticonderoga © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

6. Fort Ticonderoga

Date recognized as a National Historic Landmark: October 9, 1960

Location: Essex County, New York

Description: Fort Ticonderoga, formerly Fort Carillon is a large 18th-century star fort built by the French at a narrows near the south end of Lake Champlain in northern New York. It was constructed between October 1755 and 1757 during the action in the North American theater of the Seven Years’ War often referred to in the US as the French and Indian War. The fort was of strategic importance during the 18th-century colonial conflicts between Great Britain and France and again played an important role during the Revolutionary War. The name Ticonderoga comes from the Iroquois word tekontaró:ken meaning “it is at the junction of two waterways”.

Bellevue Avenue Historic District © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

7. Bellevue Avenue Historic District

Date recognized as a National Historic Landmark: May 11, 1976

Location: Newport, Newport County, Rhode Island

Description: Bellevue Avenue or The Avenue as it’s known to some of the older locals is teeming with history. Its only 2½ miles long but it contains more history and elegance than just about any other avenue in the nation.
Bellevue Avenue was home to many of America’s elite during the Gilded Age. Its residents included the Astors, Vanderbilts, Morgans, and other members of the Four Hundred (New York’s premier social list), who made Newport Rhode Island their summer home.

The Avenue is home to many Newport Rhode Island attractions, including International Tennis Hall of Fame, Redwood Library (oldest in the nation), Newport Art Museum, and Newport Tower.

Read more: Newport Cliff Walk: Ocean Views, Mansions and more

Charleston Historic District © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

8. Charleston Historic District

Date recognized as a National Historic Landmark: October 9, 1960

Location: Charleston, Charleston County, South Carolina

Description: Charleston is home to one of America’s most intact historic districts. Nestled along a narrow peninsula—where the Ashley and Cooper rivers meet and empty into the Atlantic Ocean—it exudes Deep South charm. With very few tall buildings, Charleston instead offers quaint cobblestone roads, colonial structures, a unique culture, and gobs of history.

More than 300 years ago, Charleston was originally named in honor of King Charles II of England. Charles Towne, as it was known, was founded in 1670 at Albmarle Point, a spot just across the Ashley River. Since that time it has played host to some of the most historic events in US history including the first major battle of the American Revolution, and the start of the Civil War.

Bastrop State Park © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

9. Bastrop State Park

Date recognized as a National Historic Landmark: September 25, 1997

Location: Bastrop, Bastrop County, Texas

Description: Bastrop State Park is the site of the famous Lost Pines, an isolated region of loblolly pines and hardwoods. The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) designed and constructed buildings and facilities in many Texas parks including Bastrop. Bastrop State Park earned National Historic Landmark status in 1997. This was due largely to the enduring craftsmanship and landscape work of the CCC. Only seven CCC parks in the nation have this recognition.

Vermont State House © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

10. Vermont Statehouse

Date recognized as a National Historic Landmark: December 30, 1970

Location: Montpelier, Washington County, Vermont

Description: The Vermont State House is one of the oldest and best preserved of our nation’s state capitols. After nearly 160 years it remains an icon in Montpelier, the smallest capital city in America. Its House and Senate chambers are the oldest active legislative halls in the United States that have preserved their original interiors.

Jerome © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

11. Jerome Historic District

Date recognized as a National Historic Landmark: November 13, 1966

Location: Jerome, Yavapai County, Arizona

Description: An old mining town-turned ghost town-turned tourist attraction, Jerome sits on a mountainside just above the desert floor. Jerome is unique and quirky, to say the least with the Sliding Jail in Jerome that was originally built around 1928 and was built on a clay slick; it soon began to slide and now sits 2,500 feet from its original location. While you’re there, you can visit the town’s most appreciated historical landmarks including the Gold King Mine Museum and the Jerome State Historic Park.

Paul Revere House © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

12. Paul Revere House

Date recognized as a National Historic Landmark: January 20, 1961

Location: Boston, Suffolk County, Massachusetts

Description: Built around 1680, the Paul Revere House owned by the legendary patriot from 1770-1800 is the oldest remaining structure in downtown Boston and also the only official Freedom Trail historic site that is a home. Tour his home and hear about 18th-century family life. In the new education and visitor center, enjoy displays and artifacts related to Revere’s many business ventures and learn the real story of his midnight ride presented in his own words. 

Read more: Walk the Freedom Trail and Experience over 250 years of History

Worth Pondering…

The past itself as historical change continues to accelerate has become the most surreal of subjects—making it possible to see a new beauty in what is vanishing.

—Susan Sontag

14 Must-See National Historic Landmarks (Must-See + Photos)

From sea to shining sea, I’m sharing America’s best historic landmarks

While there are more than 87,000 properties listed on the National Register of Historic Places which is America’s official list of historic properties only about 3 percent of those are National Historic Landmarks. The Alamo, Savannah Historic District, Keeneland Race Track, Historic Williamsburg, Hubbell Trading Post, and more are all National Historic Landmarks.

Each of these Landmarks is an exceptional representation of an important chapter of American history. The town of Telluride joined this preeminent group of America’s most special places in 1961 when it was designated a National Historic Landmark as one of the most important places associated with mining history in the United States. Hall’s Hospital, now the home of the Telluride Historical Museum was built in 1896 and is one of the oldest buildings in Telluride. It is also designated as a National Historic Landmark and is a contributing structure to the Town’s status as a National Historic Landmark District.

From Old Ironsides to the Grand Canyon Depot these 14 landmarks are just some of the must-see sights that help us appreciate America’s beauty and resiliency while reconciling its past and honoring those who lived here before the New World was built. Be sure to stay in a local campground or RV park to get the full local, often historic, experience.

There are over 2,600 National Historic Landmark sites in the United States and the federal government owns fewer than 400 of them. Roughly 85 percent of them are owned by private citizens, organizations, corporations, tribal entities, or state or local governments—or sometimes a combination.

USS Alabama © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

1. USS Alabama

Date recognized as a National Historic Landmark: January 14, 1986

Location: Mobile, Mobile County, Alabama

Description: Displacing more than 44,500 tons, USS Alabama Battleship measures 680 feet from stem to stern—half as long as the Empire State Building is tall. Armed with nine, 16-inch guns in three turrets and 20, 5-inch, .38-caliber guns in 10 twin mounts, her main batteries could fire shells, as heavy as a small car, accurately for a distance of more than 20 miles.

Her steel side armor was a foot thick above the waterline, tapering to one half inch at the bottom. Her four propellers, each weighing more than 18 tons, could drive her through the seas up to 28 knots (32 mph). Loaded with 7,000 tons of fuel oil, her range was about 15,000 nautical miles. 

Read more: Lucky A: USS Alabama Battleship Memorial Park

Hubbell Trading Post © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

2. Hubbell Trading Post

Date recognized as a National Historic Landmark: December 12, 1960

Location: Ganado, Apache County, Arizona

Description: Hubbell Trading Post is the oldest operating trading post in the Navajo Nation. The Arizona historical site sells basic traveling staples as well as Native American art just as it did during the late 1800s.

Jekyll Island Club © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

3. Jekyll Island Historic District

Date recognized as a National Historic Landmark: June 2, 1978

Location: Jekyll Island, Glynn County, Georgia

Description: In 1886, Jekyll Island was purchased to become an exclusive winter retreat known as the Jekyll Island Club. It soon became recognized as “the richest, most inaccessible club in the world.” Club members included such notable figures as J.P. Morgan, Joseph Pulitzer, William K. Vanderbilt, and Marshall Field. Today, the former Club grounds comprise a 240-acre site with 34 historic structures. The Jekyll Island Club National Historic Landmark is one of the largest restoration projects in the southeastern United States.

Read more: Celebrating 75 Years of Jekyll Island State Park: 1947-2022

USS Constitution © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

4. Constitution (Frigate)

Date recognized as a National Historic Landmark: December 19, 1960

Location: Charlestown Navy Yard, Suffolk County, Massachusetts

Description: USS Constitution is the oldest commissioned warship still afloat. Naval officers and crew still serve aboard her today. 

The wooden-hulled, three-mast USS Constitution was launched from Hartt’s shipyard in Boston’s North End on October 21, 1797. It was designed to be more heavily armed and better constructed than the standard ships of the period.

The greatest glory for USS Constitution came during the War of 1812. It was during this war in the battle against the HMS Guerriere the ship earned the nickname Old Ironsides when the crew of the British ship noticed their canon shots simply bounced off the ship’s strong oak hull they proclaimed: “Huzzah! Her sides are made of iron!”

Read more: The Storied History of Old Ironsides

Keeneland © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

5. Keeneland Race Course

Date recognized as a National Historic Landmark: September 24, 1986

Location: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

Description: Since opening in October 1936, Keeneland has been unique in the Thoroughbred industry. Keeneland is the world’s largest and most prominent Thoroughbred auction house and hosts world-class racing twice annually during its boutique spring and fall meetings. Owners, trainers, riders, and fans from all over the world travel to Lexington each year to participate at Keeneland.

Read more: Keeneland: A Special Place

Grand Canyon Depot © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

6. Grand Canyon Depot

Date recognized as a National Historic Landmark: May 28, 1987

Location: South Rim, Grand Canyon National Park, Coconino County, Arizona

Constructed in 1909-1910, Grand Canyon Depot is part of the Grand Canyon National Park Historic District and is a National Historic Landmark. Designed by architect Francis W. Wilson of Santa Barbara, California, the log and wood-frame structure is two stories high. Originally, the downstairs was designated for station facilities, and the upstairs was for the station agent’s family.

Just beyond the depot is the El Tovar Hotel built in 1905 by the railroad. The El Tovar is the signature hotel along the rim. The railroad built the depot five years after the hotel and placed it conveniently close for the rail passengers.

Read more: Making a Grand Trip Grander

The Alamo © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

7. The Alamo

Date recognized as a National Historic Landmark: December 19, 1960

Location: San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas

Description: In San Antonio, five missions were constructed between 1718 and 1720. Appropriately, the first of these was Mission San Antonio de Valero later to be known as the Alamo. Remember the Alamo! It was the battle cry of Texas freedom fighters during the decisive Battle of San Jacinto led by Sam Houston against Mexico in April 1836. And it was a memorial to the doomed defenders of the Spanish mission turned Texas fort. The Alamo became a bloody battlefield and a hallowed final resting place for those who would never leave these grounds alive.

Read more: Remember the Alamo?

Colonial Williamsburg © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

8. Williamsburg Historic District

Date recognized as a National Historic Landmark: October 9, 1960

Location: Williamsburg (City), Virginia

Description: Colonial Williamsburg is the world’s largest living history museum with 301 acres featuring iconic sites, working trades people, historic taverns, and two world-class art museums. The city was founded as the capital of the Virginia Colony in 1699 and it was here that the basic concepts of the United States of America were formed under the leadership of George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, George Mason, and many others.

Read more: Colonial Williamsburg: World’s Largest Living History Museum

Savannah © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

9. Savannah Historic District

Date recognized as a National Historic Landmark: November 13, 1966

Location: Savannah, Chatham County, Georgia

Description: Walk down the cobblestone streets of Georgia’s first city, a place filled with southern charm. Steeped in history and architectural treasures, Savannah begs to be explored by trolley and on foot. Much of Savannah’s charm lies in meandering through the Historic District’s lovely shaded squares draped in feathery Spanish moss—all 22 of them.

Tumacacori © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

10. Tumacacori Museum

Date recognized as a National Historic Landmark: May 28, 1987

Location: Tumacacori, Santa Cruz County, Arizona

Description: The oldest Jesuit mission in Arizona has been preserved in Tumacácori National Historic Park, a picturesque reminder that Southern Arizona was, at one time, the far northern frontier of New Spain. The San Cayetano del Tumacácori Mission was established in 1691 by Spanish Jesuit priest Eusebio Francisco Kino, 29 miles north of Nogales beside the Santa Cruz River. Jesuit, and later Franciscan, priests ministered to the O’odham Indians and Spanish settlers until 1848.

Read more: Tumacácori National Historic Park: More Than Just Adobe, Plaster & Wood

Mount Washington Hotel © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

11. Mount Washington Hotel

Date recognized as a National Historic Landmark: June 24, 1986

Location: Carroll, Coos County, New Hampshire

Description: While the Mount Washington Hotel in Bretton Woods is tucked away from the main drag, it’s almost impossible to miss it with Mount Washington hovering over like a halo. Once you walk into the lobby, you’re transported back to 1902 when the hotel first opened. It’s even rumored that the owner’s wife, Carolyn, still lives in the hotel (don’t worry, a friendly tenant), and ghost aficionados jump at the opportunity to book her old quarters in Room 314.

Read more: The Uniqueness of the White Mountains

Palace of the Governors © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

12. Palace of the Governors

Date recognized as a National Historic Landmark: October 9, 1960

Location: Santa Fe, Santa Fe County, New Mexico

Description: Downtown Santa Fe’s Palace of the Governors on the plaza is one of the most iconic sites in the city. The oldest continuously inhabited building in the United States, it’s perhaps best known for the Native American market beneath its portal. But inside is a historic gem as well—the New Mexico History Museum which covers centuries of life in Santa Fe and hosts exhibitions related to the tri-culture of the Native Americans, Spanish, and Anglo peoples and cultures of New Mexico.

Read more: Santa Fe Never Goes Out of Style

The Strand © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

13. Strand Historic District

Date recognized as a National Historic Landmark: May 11, 1976

Location: Galveston, Galveston County, Texas

Description: Galveston’s Historic Strand District, or The Strand, is the heart of the island and a great place to shop, dine, and be entertained. Fronting Galveston Bay, The Strand is a National Historic Landmark that harkens back to Galveston’s heyday in the late 1800s and early 1900s. Many of the buildings here are more than a century old, stunning in their detail and craftsmanship. Storefronts here are a mix of antique shops, art galleries, souvenir shops, and more. The Strand serves as the commercial center of downtown Galveston. Places of interest include the Ocean Star Offshore Energy Center and Museum, Pier 21 Theater, the Texas Seaport Museum, and the tall ship Elissa.

Read more: I Still Dream of Galveston

Yuma Crossing © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

14. Yuma Crossing and Associated Sites

Date recognized as a National Historic Landmark: November 13, 1966

Location: Yuma, Yuma County, Arizona and Winterhaven, Imperial County, California

Description: The Colorado River State Historic Park (formerly Yuma Crossing State Historic Park) sits on the bank of the Colorado where river captains once sailed from the Gulf of California to unload supplies then kick up their heels in the bustling port of Yuma.

The park is located on a portion of the grounds of the old U.S. Army Quartermaster Depot established in 1864. This site is significant in the history of the Arizona Territory. The purpose of the Park is to protect its historic structures and interpret the diverse history of the site.

Many of the original structures from that time are still standing. 

Read more: The Yuma Crossing

Worth Pondering…

Most people’s historical perspective begins with the day of their birth.

—Rush Limbaugh

10 Towns Older Than America

America’s oldest cities offer more than just a history lesson. Some are still small towns compared to other areas. Others have grown into thriving world focal points.

For history lovers, nothing beats the old-time charm and architectural wonder of America’s oldest towns. These settlements are hundreds of years old dating back before the founding of the United States in 1776. Whether you’re looking for a quaint place to tour, planning a weekend getaway, or studying up on U.S. history, you’ll enjoy this glimpse into our nation’s past through 10 of the oldest towns in America.

Colonial Williamsburg © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

Williamsburg, Virginia (Then)

Williamsburg was founded as the capital of the Virginia Colony in 1699. The original capital, Jamestown was the first permanent English-speaking settlement in the New World founded in 1607. Colonial leaders petitioned the Virginia Assembly to relocate the capital from Jamestown to Middle Plantation, five miles inland between the James and the York Rivers. The new city was renamed Williamsburg in honor of England’s reigning monarch, King William III.

Colonial Williamsburg © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

Williamsburg, Virginia (Now)

Experience the story of America in the place where it all began. As you travel through the Greater Williamsburg Area—Jamestown, Williamsburg, and Yorktown—you’re witnessing more than four centuries of history. Discover what John Smith’s Virginia colony was like while you visit Jamestown Settlement’s museum exhibits and re-created settings. Explore Colonial Williamsburg where historical interpreters and actors re-create life on the eve of the Revolutionary War. Travel to the Yorktown Battlefield where the British surrender allowed the United States to gain its independence.

Palace of the Governors, Santa Fe © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

Santa Fe, New Mexico (Then)

The history of Santa Fe is a long and rich one. Occupied for many centuries by Pueblo Indians, the Spanish conquistador Coronado claimed this land for Spain in 1540. Nestled in the foothills of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains, Santa Fe was originally colonized by Spanish settlers in 1607. The United States gained possession through the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848, and the desert city now serves as the capital of New Mexico.

Santa Fe © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

Santa Fe, New Mexico (Now)

Santa Fe remains famous for its Pueblo-style architecture which is showcased in the San Miguel Mission and the entire Barrio de Analco Historic District. The area’s natural beauty has long attracted artists of all stripes making it a multicultural creative hotbed. Nestled into the foothills of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains, Canyon Road is a magical half-mile of over a hundred galleries, artist studios, clothing boutiques, jewelry stores, and gourmet restaurants.

The Riverwalk, San Antonio © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

San Antonio, Texas (Then)

On June 13, 1691, Spanish missionaries named an area of south-central Texas for St. Anthony of Padua, a Portuguese Catholic priest, and friar. San Antonio was officially settled 25 years later. Then, in 1836, Mexican troops initiated a 13-day siege at the Alamo Mission, and the settlers were brutally slaughtered. While San Antonio was further decimated by the Mexican-American War, it rebounded as the center of the cattle industry after the Civil War.

The Alamo © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

San Antonio, Texas (Now)

With a population of around 1.3 million people, San Antonio is now the second-largest city in Texas. Visitors flock to the Alamo historic site and the popular River Walk which is lined with shops, restaurants, and public art.

Charleston © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

Charleston, South Carolina (Then)

Originally named Charles Town for England’s King Charles II, Charleston adopted its current moniker after the American Revolution. The first shots of the Civil War rang out at Fort Sumter in Charleston, but despite the ravages of war—not to mention a massive earthquake in 1886—the city still abounds with elegant antebellum houses.

Charleston© Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

Charleston, South Carolina (Now)

Today, cruise ships come and go from the Port of Charleston, and a harbor-deepening project is underway to advance business. Charleston’s downtown neighborhoods display a spectrum of classic Georgian, Federal, Greek Revival, Italianate, and Victorian homes.

The Breakers, Newport © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

Newport, Rhode Island (Then)

Settled by a group of former Puritans, the harbor city of Newport became the center of the whaling industry by the mid-18th century. One hundred years later, America’s wealthiest families began building summer homes there. But while the rich came to Newport to escape the heat, the U.S. Navy was, and continues to be, a full-time presence, although the closing of a naval base in 1973 caused the local economy to plummet.

Ocean Drive, Newport © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

Newport, Rhode Island (Now)

Recent years have seen the construction of new malls, condos, and upscale hotels in downtown Newport. The town’s lovely beaches, mansions turned museums (including an Italian Renaissance home of the Vanderbilts and a Gothic Revival masterpiece called Kingscote), and events like the Newport Jazz Festival make it an ever-popular vacation destination.

Madison Square, Savannah © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

Savannah, Georgia (Then)

Savannah‘s recorded history begins in 1733. That’s the year General James Oglethorpe and the 120 passengers of the good ship “Anne” landed on a bluff high along the Savannah River in February. Oglethorpe named the 13th and final American colony “Georgia” after England’s King George II. Savannah became its first city. Upon Oglethorpe’s foresight, the city of Savannah was laid out in a series of grids allowing for wide streets and public squares. Considered America’s first planned city, Savannah had 24 original squares with 22 still in existence today.

City Market, Savannah © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

Savannah, Georgia (Now)

Walk down the cobblestone streets of Georgia’s first city, a place filled with southern charm. Steeped in history and architectural treasures, Savannah begs to be explored by trolley and on foot. Much of Savannah’s charm lies in meandering through the Historic District’s lovely shaded squares draped in feathery Spanish moss—all 22 of them.

Mobile © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

Mobile, Alabama (Then)

The French established a permanent presence in the Mobile Bay Area in 1702 and by 1706 there were at least four permanently established sites in the area including the current site of the City of Mobile. Mobile is the oldest permanent settlement in the original Colony of French Louisiana and was its first capitol. The first five governors of Louisiana resided in Mobile and governed an area twice the size of the thirteen English colonies extending from Canada to the Gulf and from the Appalachians to the Rockies. 

Mobile © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

Mobile, Alabama (Now)

Mobile has a rich past spanning centuries. French, Spanish, British, Creole, Catholic, Greek, and African legacies have influenced everything from architecture to cuisine. No matter where you turn, history is right around the corner. Visit the History Museum of Mobile, explore the battlegrounds of Forts Morgan, Gaines, and Condé or simply walk the streets of historic downtown.

Ashton Villa, Galveston © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

Galveston, Texas (Then)

The first inhabitants in Galveston history were the Karankawa Indians in the 16th century. Galveston Island’s first noted visitor was Cabeza de Vaca, the Spanish explorer who landed in 1528. Its first European settler was French “privateer” Jean Lafitte. The city was chartered in 1839.

Bishop’s Palace, Galveston © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

Galveston, Texas (Now)

Galveston encompasses more history and stories than cities 20 times its size. At 32 miles long and two-and-a-half miles wide, the island is surrounded with incredible history and unique beauty. Having one of the largest and well-preserved concentrations of Victorian architecture in the country, visitors can tour its popular historic mansions.

Presidio, Tucson © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

Tucson, Arizona (Then)

First occupied by ancient Paleo-Indians as far back as 12,000 years ago, Tucson, known as the Old Pueblo, is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in America. The ancients were followed by the Hohokam, then the Pima and Tohono ‘O’odham tribes. Next the Spanish came in search of gold. Missionaries followed in the early 1600s in search of natives to convert to Christianity. Tucson dates its official beginning to 1775 when an Irishman named Hugh O’Connor established the Presidio de San Agustin near present-day downtown Tucson.

Prisidio Park, Tucson © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

Tucson, Arizona (Now)

Tucson is diverse in its geography as well as its history. While the area is well-known for its abundant saguaro cacti, a drive to the top of nearby Mount Lemmon offers a snow-covered peak with a pine forest. The giant saguaros have lent their name to Saguaro National Park. Sabino Canyon is a desert oasis supporting riparian habitat. The Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum is as much zoo and botanical garden as it is natural history museum.

Freedom Trail, Boston © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

Boston, Massachusetts (Then)

One of America’s most historically rich cities, the story of America is evident on nearly every corner in Boston. Officially founded in 1630 by English Puritans who fled to the new land to pursue religious freedom, Boston is considered by many to be the birthplace of the American Revolution. It was here that the Sons of Liberty led by Samuel Adams inspired colonists to fight for their freedom against the domination of British Rule.

Old State House, Boston © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

Boston, Massachusetts (Now)

Walk the 2.5-mile Freedom Trail to explore 16 historic sites in the heart of the city including the site of the Boston Massacre, Paul Revere’s house, the Old North Church, and the Bunker Hill Monument—all icons of the American Revolution. In addition, visitors can see the U.S.S. Constitution, one of the first ships in the U.S. Navy, commissioned by President George Washington in 1797.

Worth Pondering…

History, although sometimes made up of the few acts of the great, is more often shaped by the many acts of the small.

—Mark Yost

Remember the Alamo?

Remember the Alamo? Once you’ve been there, it’s impossible to forget.

Good morning, good afternoon, good evening. I don’t care when you read this, but just know: RVing with Rex is perfect for any time of day. Whether you’re all hopped up on cold brew, making travel plans to some far-flung destinations (in your RV, of course!), sending multi-paragraph emails to a customer service representative at XYZ RV Repair Shop, staring at your phone while nodding off during a mid-afternoon slump, or staying up late into the bewitching hour to put some final touches on your watercolor portrait of The Alamo, it’s never a bad time to pick up what RVing with Rex is putting down. And what a day to do so!

The Alamo © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

Today’s post is all about the Shrine of Texas Liberty.

Remember the Alamo! It was the battle cry of Texas freedom fighters during the decisive Battle of San Jacinto, led by Sam Houston against Mexico in April 1836. And it was a memorial to the doomed defenders of the Spanish mission turned Texas fort; they had tried, without success, to hold off Mexican general Antonio López de Santa Anna in late February and early March of that year. The Alamo became a bloody battlefield and a hallowed final resting place for those who would never leave these grounds alive.

The Alamo © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

On the 13th day—March 6, 1836—the Alamo finally fell, and its defenders became American legends. The aftermath has inspired Americans for almost 180 years, and the battle cry “Remember the Alamo?” has been repeated over and over again.

We were able to recall the power of the phase on a visit to the Alamo. The Alamo is not located in a vast field like Gettysburg or the Little Big Horn. Rather, it is located just off what now is the Alamo Plaza. Here’s a place where you can lose yourself in a world of brave deeds.

The Alamo © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

To understand the Alamo and its impact on the Texas Revolution, one needs to understand its times. From the historical perspective, you would be well served to first visit one of San Antonio’s other missions, for they provide insight into the way the Alamo once functioned. With the exception of the Alamo, the missions are all run by the National Parks Service and the grounds have been preserved, unlike those of the Alamo which are now engulfed by the city.

Mission San José y San Miguel de Aguayo © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

In San Antonio, five missions were constructed between 1718 and 1720. Appropriately, the first of these was Mission San Antonio de Valero, later to be known as the Alamo. Other missions along the San Antonio River include Mission Nuestra Señora de la Purisima Concepción, Mission San José y San Miguel de Aguayo, Mission San Juan Capistrano, and Mission San Francisco de la Espada. Missions were constructed in an effort to help Spain with its desire to create a Spanish America. Essentially, that meant Christianizing the Indians.

The Alamo Living History Reenactment © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

In 1833, Santa Anna had just become President of Mexico, assuming a dual role. Colonists, he decreed, could buy property in these barren Texas lands, but shortly thereafter, he revised his thinking and told the colonists to go back home, which most refused to do.

This uneasy truce between Mexico and the colonists lasted until October 2, 1835, when citizens at Gonzales, under the leadership of William Travis, held fast to their convictions—and to their cannon. When Mexican soldiers approached within cannon range, the defenders of Gonzales fired. Travis and his men then retreated 60 miles to the Alamo—where several months later, they achieved immortality.

The Alamo Living History Reenactment © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

In Texas, remembering the Alamo is nothing new. More recently, the Daughters of the Republic of Texas began sponsoring a Living History reenactment, and as fate would have it, we were there for the annual March event. While it was not our first visit to the Alamo, historically it was the most significant!

On this Sunday morning we joined an exceptionally large crown of thousands to “Remember the Alamo,” and the battle there on a similar morning many years earlier.

The Alamo Living History Reenactment © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

Texans recalled the 189 known defenders who died and the 400 to 600 Mexican troops killed or wounded.

The place was packed, full of tourists. They came from all over, to participate in the battle reenactment and other activities. Grabbing their muskets, straightening their hats, and pulling on jackets ranging from ratty leather to officer uniforms, they readied themselves for the various activities.

The Alamo Living History Reenactment © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

Dressed in period clothing they demonstrated how both the Mexicans and the Texans lived—how they prepared food, played music, made cloth and clothing, and played out the story of the battle.

The amazing scenes began as the actors assembled, established the setting at the Alamo, and ended with the fateful swarming of the mission. Smoke bellowed into the plaza from the cannons and from the cap-and-ball pistols used at the time, and spectators brushed shoulders with Mexican soldiers—and with the heroic figures of William Travis, David Crockett, and Jim Bowie.

The Alamo Living History Reenactment © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

But, the story continued. Just six weeks after the fall of the Alamo, Sam Houston’s army caught up with the soldiers of Santa Anna, literally asleep along the banks of the San Jacinto River. There, just nine Texans lost their life as Houston defeated Santa Anna. Houston spared the general’s life, and with the Mexican capitulation, Texas won its independence, becoming a republic.

The Alamo Living History Reenactment © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

Remember the Alamo? Once you’ve been there, it’s impossible to forget.

Texas Spoken Friendly

Worth Pondering…

You may all go to hell and I will go to Texas.

—David Crockett

La Mesilla: Where History and Culture Become an Experience

The historic town of Mesilla lies just south of Las Cruces and is what some might call the hidden jewel of the state

Two miles south of Las Cruces is one of the most historic towns in the Southwest: La Mesilla. Mesilla did not become part of the United States until the mid-1850s, but its history begins with the end of the Mexican-American War and the signing of the Treaty of Guadalupe. Soon after, the sleepy border town would become one of the most important towns in the West, playing a key role in western expansion.

Mesilla © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

When the United States entered into the Treaty of Guadalupe in 1848, it gained control over Texas, New Mexico, and Upper California, setting the Mexican-American border at Rio Grande River. Those wishing to continue being Mexican citizens moved across the Rio Grande back into Mexico. They settled on a small hill and founded the town of La Mesilla.

Mesilla © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

By the mid-1850s, Mesilla had established itself as an instrumental town in the transportation of passengers and goods around the Southwest. The Mexican town prospered as it became one of the only places travelers could stop, rest, and get supplies, no matter which direction they were heading.

Mesilla © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

But when the Gadsden Purchase was ratified in 1854, the small town would again fall under the authority of the United States as the U.S. gained control of nearly 30,000 square miles of northern Mexico, southern Arizona, and New Mexico. By the mid-1800s, Mesilla’s population had reached 3,000, making it the largest town and trade center between San Antonio and San Diego and an important stop for both the Butterfield Stage Line and the San Antonio-San Diego Mail Lines.

Mesilla © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

Around the plaza, fine hotels and restaurants were built to accommodate the influx of travelers and new residents. Drove-muleteers and miners traveling between El Paso, Santa Fe, and mining companies in the Gila and San Andres Mountains regularly purchased supplies in Mesilla prompting wholesalers from as far away as San Antonio and St. Louis to advertise in Mesilla newspapers. The town was also frequented by Apache Indians, who regularly attacked, stealing livestock and food, and taking captives.

Mesilla © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

But the Apaches were not the only ones to invade Mesilla. During the 1850s, Confederate troops invaded the small town, taking control and declaring it the capital of the Arizona Territory of the Confederate States of America. Headquarters were set up in what is currently the Fountain Theatre and although some residents supported the Confederate cause the town continued to celebrate its Mexican heritage. The broad mix of political views and cultures often resulted in riots and shootouts, quite a contrast to the fiestas, dances, and fairs residents were accustomed to.

Mesilla © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

Mesilla continued to grow and prosper until the early 1880s when the Santa Fe Railroad selected nearby Las Cruces instead of Mesilla for the location of its newest route.  Mesilla landowners resented the railroad’s assumption that local residents would help build the line prompting Las Cruces businessmen to persuade the railroad giant northward. With attention now focused on Las Cruces, Mesilla’s appeal and importance began to wane. To this day, its size and population are virtually the same as they were 120 years ago.

Mesilla © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

But the coming of the railroad brought with it its own set of problems to the area. Workers consumed huge quantities of beef placing city officials at the mercy of cattle rustlers. Gunfights often broke out in the streets of Mesilla and horse thieves and cattle rustlers like Nicolas Provencio and Dutch Hubert were regulars in both towns. Even western outlaw Billy the Kid—a frequent visitor of both towns—was tried and convicted for murder in a Mesilla courtroom. It was said that during sentencing, the judge told Billy he would hang until he was “dead, dead, dead,” to which Billy replied, “Well you can go to hell, hell, hell.” Billy was later shot and killed by Lincoln County Sheriff Pat Garrett after escaping from a Lincoln County jail cell where he was awaiting execution.

Mesilla © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

Today, visitors won’t find wild gunfights or riots on Mesilla’s streets; rather they can visit a new generation of Mesilla residents. Where a stagecoach depot, saloon, courthouse and hotel once stood, you now find restaurants, art galleries, bookstores, and shops. On some weekends, the plaza plays host to festivals and events like Cinco de Mayo, Diez y Seis de Septiembre, and Dia de los Muertos, all celebrating the town’s heritage and colorful past.

San Albino Church, Mesilla © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

During the Christmas season, the plaza is aglow with luminarias and filled with the sounds of carolers. Visitors can also see the San Albino Church built from adobe more than 100 years ago or the Gadsden Museum, a local landmark recounting the area’s rich history. And just down the street, shoppers can find the latest addition to Mesilla, the Mercado de Mesilla, featuring an array of merchants, vendors, and restaurants.

San Albino Church, Mesilla © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

Efforts to preserve the town’s rich history, culture, and architecture have made Mesilla one of the best-known and most-visited historic communities in southern New Mexico. Year-round, visitors can experience all the intrigue and independence this historic village has to offer.

Mesilla © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

While there are more than enough activities to keep you occupied in Mesilla, the town is located about two miles from Las Cruces, the second-largest city in the state. We defy you to be bored here!

Worth Pondering…

If you ever go to New Mexico, it will itch you for the rest of your life.

—Georgia O’Keeffe

Old Mesilla: Where Time Stood Still

A stroll through Old Mesilla will take you back in time to the 1800s

No visit to Las Cruces is complete without a stroll through Old Mesilla. This little town, just two miles southwest of Las Cruces, is steeped in history. Mesilla (“Little Tableland”) is the best-known and most visited historical community in Southern New Mexico.

Mesilla © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

Mesilla is a small town by today’s standards but 150 years ago it was the largest city between San Antonio and San Diego. By the 1870s, it was the county seat and the Mesilla Valley’s leading center of trade. In addition to El Camino Real, the town’s trade connections were maintained through a variety of stage, freight, and mail routes, including the Butterfield Overland Mail, San Antonio Mail, and Wells Fargo Express. Mesilla hasn’t changed much over the years, allowing visitors to see what a 1800s border town looked like.

Mesilla © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

In the sixteenth century Apaches and other tribes regularly camped in Mesilla, but it wasn’t until after the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo that ended the Mexican-American War in 1848 that the first permanent settlers came to Mesilla to call it their home. By 1850, Mesilla was firmly established as an outpost of Mexico, but with the signing of the Gadsden Purchase in 1854, the village officially became part of the U.S. Since its beginning, Mesilla has had a major influence on the economic, cultural, historical, and political life of the Mesilla Valley. 

Mesilla © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

From the Gadsden Purchase to the Civil War to the El Camino Real and Butterfield Stage Coach route to the trial of Billy the Kid to being a lively social center in the 1880s—Mesilla has been a prominent part of the rich history of the Southwest. Mesilla was the Old West with outlaws frequenting many of the bars and dances. 

Mesilla © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

From its origins as a simple dirt lot, the plaza has developed through time with paving, landscaping and a replica 1930s-era bandstand, creating a more modern, but no less inviting, social center. The commercial and residential buildings that border the plaza reflect Mesilla’s maturing as a prime location on El Camino Real and on the southern route to California, where gold was discovered in 1849.

Basilica of San Albino, Mesilla © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

On the north end of the Plaza is the Basilica of San Albino, one of the oldest missions in the Mesilla Valley. Originally built of adobe in 1855, that church was replaced in 1906 by today’s San Albino church, a yellow-brick building whose facade is dominated by square belfries with pyramid towers and soaring, arched stain-glass windows.

Double Eagle, Mesilla © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

As the plaza’s primary anchor, San Albino continues to reflect the prominent role of religion in the community’s history. Outside the church is a memorial to parishioners who died in combat. In 2008, the church’s historical importance was recognized as it was designated as one of two basilicas in New Mexico. 

La Posta, Mesilla © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

Today, Mesilla offers a wide range of events as well as shopping and dining on the town’s plaza. Enjoy a meal at the famous La Posta or Double Eagle, where patrons can enjoy authentic local cuisine while they visit one of the most historical locations in New Mexico.

Mesilla © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

Many cultural and historical activities are held in the plaza, the Cinco de Mayo fiesta, the 16th de Septiembre Fiesta, and the Dia de Los Muertos (Day of the Dead). On Christmas Eve, the Plaza comes alive with hundreds of luminarias lining streets, sidewalks, and buildings. Every Thursday and Sunday the local Farmer’s and Craft’s market is held on the Plaza.

Mesilla © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

Today, many of Mesilla’s population of nearly 2,200 residents are direct descendents of Mesilla’s early settlers. Mesilla has a rich and diverse heritage with the integration of Indian, Spanish, Mexican, and Anglo-American cultures. The traditional adobe structures and architectural features modified through time still remain as a reminder of the long and significant history of the town.

Mesilla © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

So, come stroll the streets Billy-the-Kid and Pancho Villa once walked, check out the shops and find unique Southwestern gifts to take back home. Step inside one of the most historical cantinas in the area, El Patio. Then stop for lunch or dinner at one of the many cafes and restaurants. But, don’t just concentrate on the plaza, drive or walk around the town taking in all the shops and sights the average visitor misses.

Mesilla © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

Mesilla is located south of Las Cruces on Avenida de Mesilla.

Worth Pondering…

If you ever go to New Mexico, it will itch you for the rest of your life.

—Georgia O’Keeffe

Going Mobile

Once called the Paris of the South, Mobile has long been the cultural center of the Gulf Coast and you’ll find an authentic experience like nowhere else in the southern U. S.

The water is a good beginning point to understand Mobile because the city is on a river, just north of a bay, south of a swamp, and has a storied history as a port. From the powdery white beaches of the gulf to the 800 square miles of alligator-­populated delta, you’re never far from water here.

Mobile © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

Mobile was named after the Mauvilla (or Maubilla) Indians who lived here centuries ago. Once called the Paris of the South, Mobile has long been the cultural center of the Gulf Coast and you’ll find an authentic experience found nowhere else in the southern United States. The birthplace of Mardi Gras in the United States, the area’s sheer beauty, modern architecture, amazing museums, and famous seafood continues to impress visitors and locals alike.

Mobile © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

Founded in 1702 as the original capital of the Louisiana Territory and nestled along the beautiful Mobile Bay, few American cities boast a history as rich as Mobile’s. In 1711, the French erected a brick fort to protect their New World inter­ests and named it Conde.

Mobile © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

The site, now a 4/5-scale reconstruction of the original early 18th century French Fort Conde, func­tions as a welcome center. The original fort sat on 11 acres of land, therefore a full-size reconstruction was not possible because of the area it would cover in downtown Mobile. The reconstructed fort opened on July 4, 1976.

Mobile © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

Later the British took ownership and after that the Spanish. In the 1820s, the U.S. Congress ordered its sale and removal and shortly afterwards it was demolished.

Mobile © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

Leaving the fort, history lovers should head across the street to the Museum of Mobile. Opened in 1857 as the Southern Market and used as City Hall through the 1990s, the museum boasts a marble lobby with six brightly colored murals reflecting the city’s landmark moments.

Mobile © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

Permanent galleries detail Mobile’s story and include such artifacts as a 14th-century dugout canoe and the Colored Entrance neon sign from the Saenger Theatre, host to many famous black musicians. Upstairs are exhibits detailing The Great Fire of 1919 which left 1,200 homeless, 1979’s Hurricane Frederic which killed three and injured thousands, and the city’s contributions to the nation such as the 1969 World Series champions Mets’ outfield who were all from Mobile.

Mobile © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

Eight National Register Historic Districts make up what is known as downtown and midtown Mobile. These eight distinct personalities spread throughout the Mobile Bay area truly define the heart and soul of Old Mobile. 

Mobile © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

Dauphin Street is an historic district in downtown Mobile that consists of many buildings from the 1820s to the 20th century; architectural styles include Federal, Greek Revival, Italianate, Queen Anne, and Victorian. Dauphin Street was named after the son of King Louis XIV and this street became the main commercial street of the city.

Mobile © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

In 1839, a fire destroyed many of the wooden buildings that had been built in the Federal style. During reconstruction, many structures were built in the Victorian style of architecture seen today.

Mobile © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

Bienville Square is a tranquil square with trees, benches, fountain, and a bandstand.

Downtown Mobile is a mixture of the old and the new. Modern office buildings and high-rise hotels are scattered among the historic buildings. The ultra-modern Outlaw Convention Center along the waterfront is an interesting contrast to the older buildings of the downtown area.

Mobile © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

The Oakleigh Historic Complex contains several buildings in one picturesque area. The Oakleigh Mansion (built around l833) is an old two-story T-shaped building constructed with slave labor. The bricks used in the walls of the ground floor were made by these slaves from clay dug on the property. The main portion of the house is of wood. The house is filled with antiques and original furnishings.

Mobile © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

Another historic building near downtown Mobile is the Bragg-Mitchell Mansion. The grounds are beautifully landscaped and century-old live oaks are scattered over the grounds. The mansion is an antebellum home with more history associated with the Civil War era.

Mobile © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

Worth Pondering…

Sweet home Alabama
Where the skies are so blue
Sweet home Alabama
Lord, I’m coming home to you

4 Historic Sites to Visit This Summer

Planning a road trip this summer?

From sea to shining sea, the U.S. has preserved sites and other areas of national historic significance.

Appomattox Court House National Historic Park © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

A National Historic Site (e.g., Hopewell Furnace, Pennsylvania) is a protected area of national historic significance and usually contains a single historical feature directly associated with its subject. A related but separate designation, the National Historical Park (e.g., Appomattox Court House, Virginia), is an area that generally extends beyond single properties or buildings, and its resources include a mix of historic and sometimes significant natural features.

San Xavier del Bac Mission © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

All historic areas, including National Historic Sites and Parks, in the National Park Service are automatically listed on the National Register of Historic Places. There are about 80,000 sites, the vast majority of which are neither owned nor managed by the National Park Service. Of these, about 2,500 have been designated at the highest status as National Historic Landmark sites (e.g., San Xavier del Bac Mission, Arizona).

Learn something new on your summer road trip by visiting these four iconic historic sites.

Montezuma Castle National Monument, Arizona

Montezuma Castle National Monument © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

The Sinagua built the five-story, 20-room structure about 1150 but abandoned it in the early 1400s. Montezuma Castle is built into a deep alcove with masonry rooms added in phases. A thick, substantial roof of sycamore beams, reeds, grasses, and clay often served as the floor of the next room built on top.

Montezuma Castle National Monument © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

This exceptionally well-preserved site gives us a glimpse into the rich history of the North American continent before the arrival of Europeans. There are plenty of places to park your RV near the site, so give yourself a few days to fully explore its many wonders.

Lyndon B. Johnson National Historical Park, Texas

Lyndon B. Johnson National Historic Park © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

Lyndon B. Johnson National Historical Park tells the story of America’s 36th President beginning with his ancestors until his final resting place on his beloved LBJ Ranch. This entire “circle of life” gives the visitor a unique perspective into one of America’s most noteworthy citizens by providing the most complete picture of any American president.

Lyndon B. Johnson National Historic Park © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

The LBJ Ranch is in the heart of the Hill Country on the banks of the Pedernales River. As part of the self-guided Ranch Tour, you may stop at the Texas White House for a ranger-guided tour.

Saratoga National Historical Park, New York

Saratoga National Historic Park © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

Site of the first significant American military victory during the Revolution, the Battles of Saratoga (September 19 and October 7, 1777) rank among the fifteen most decisive battles in world history. Here, American forces met, defeated, and forced a major British army to surrender.

Saratoga National Historic Park © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

This crucial American victory in the Battle of Saratoga renewed patriots’ hopes for independence, secured essential foreign recognition and support, and forever changed the face of the world.

Fort Frederica National Monument, Georgia

Fort Frederica National Monument © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

Located on the interior coast of Georgia’s St. Simons Island, Fort Frederica National Monument preserves the remains of a military outpost consisting of a fort and town that for a time was one of the most important settlements in the American Colonies. By the 1740s Frederica was a thriving village of about 500 citizens.

Fort Frederica National Monument © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

Invading Spanish forces were defeated by English forces at the Battle of Bloody Marsh during the summer of 1742. The Spanish soon gave up their campaign and returned to Florida. This British victory not only confirmed that Georgia was British territory, but also signaled the beginning of the end for Frederica.

Worth Pondering…

Traveling is almost like talking with men of other centuries.

—René Descartes

Top 9 Things to See and Do in Santa Fe

Santa Fe, New Mexico, is one of the top destinations in the American Southwest

A city that embraces its natural environment, Santa Fe, New Mexico, is a city whose beautiful adobe architecture blends with the high desert landscape. A city that is, at the same time, one of America’s great art and culinary capitals. Santa Fe draws those who love art, natural beauty, and those who wish to relax.

Here are the 12 best things to see and do in Santa Fe. 

The Plaza, the Heart of Santa Fe

Plaza of Santa Fe © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

As the heart of the city and the place where Santa Fe was founded, the Plaza is the city’s most historic area. Surrounded by museums, historic buildings, restaurants, hotels, galleries, and endless shopping, the Plaza is the place to start understanding Santa Fe.

Canyon Road

Santa Fe © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

Santa Fe has more than 250 galleries and has been rated the second largest art market in the country, after New York City. Canyon Road is a historic pathway into the mountains and an old neighborhood that has become the city’s center for art with the highest concentration of galleries.

Georgia O’Keeffe Museum

Palace of the Governors on the Plaza © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

The Georgia O’Keeffe museum is a showcase not only for O’Keeffe’s work but also for that of her many contemporaries. It features more than 3,000 works, including 140 of the famous artist’s oil paintings and almost 700 of her drawings. 

The museum also preserves her home and studio in Abiquiu, New Mexico, about an hour away. You can visit this by appointment.

Museum Hill

The Museum of Contemporary Native Arts © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

In a town with many museums, Museum Hill is a collection of four of its most interesting: the Museum of International Folk Art, the ​​Museum of Indian Arts & Culture, the Museum of Spanish Colonial Art, and the Wheelwright Museum of the American Indian. With a wonderful plaza, expansive views, footpaths connecting each museum, and a convenient cafe, Museum Hill is a day trip right in town.

Palace of the Governors Native American Vendors

Palace of the Governors © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

Every day, dozens of artists from around Santa Fe and the Southwest sell their work under the long portal that fronts the Palace of the Governors. This is a regulated program that ​ensures that high-quality, authentic artwork is sold by the artists or their family members. The palace itself is the state’s history museum and the oldest public building in the U.S., making it a perfect setting.

Institute of American Indian Art (IAIA)

Santa Fe © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

Contrasting to the more traditional art forms sold at the palace and at many of Santa Fe’s shops and galleries is this museum dedicated to contemporary American Indian art. The museum is an arm of the IAIA college that teaches art to native peoples.

St. Francis Cathedral Basilica of Assisi

The Cathedral Basilica of St. Francis of Assis on the Plaza © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

The largest example of non-adobe style architecture in the city, the Romanesque St. Francis Cathedral dominates the downtown cityscape. The cathedral is a religious center for Santa Fe and the home to La Conquistadora, a centuries-old statue revered within the city.

New Mexico History Museum

New Mexico Museum of Art © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

This museum is conveniently located on the Historic Plaza in Santa Fe next to the Palace of the Governors. This new museum has permanent and rotating exhibits, as well as archives. The exhibits are interesting, vibrant and interactive.

Loretto Chapel

Loretto Chapel © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

The visitor is drawn to Loretto Chapel to see the spiral staircase that leads to the choir loft. The chapel’s small sized made access to the loft possible only by ladder.

Loretto Chapel © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

When none of the local carpenters could build a staircase that wouldn’t encroach on the limited floor space, the Sisters prayed to St. Joseph, the patron saint of carpenters. Soon a mysterious stranger arrived, looking for work, and built an elegant spiral staircase. Without presenting any bill for payment, he disappeared as suddenly as he had come.

The Spiral Staircase in the Loretto Chapel © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

The staircase—with two 360-degree turns, no visible means of support, and without the benefit of nails—has been called the Miraculous Staircase. The identity of the builder remains unknown.

Santa Fe history as displayed on mural on the Plaza © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

Worth Pondering…

I’m in love with Santa Fe;

Like it better every day;

But I wonder, every minute

How the folks who aren’t in it

Ever stand it, anyway.

Not to be in Santa Fe.

—Mae Peregine, 1915