An Ancient Village on the Hill: How Life was Lived at Tuzigoot

This extensive Sinagua pueblo sits on a scenic hilltop with views of Jerome and the Verde Valley

Crowning a desert hilltop is an ancient pueblo. A child scans the desert landscape for the arrival of traders. What riches will they bring? What stories will they tell? From the rooftop of the Tuzigoot pueblo it is easy to imagine such a moment.

Tuzigoot National Monument © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

Built atop a small 120 foot ridge is a large pueblo. Tuzigoot is Apache for crooked water; however, it was built by the Sinagua. With 77 ground floor rooms this pueblo held about 50 people. After about 100 years the population doubled and then doubled again later. By the time they finished building the pueblo, it had 110 rooms including second and third story structures and housed 250 people. An interesting fact is that Tuzigoot lacked ground level doors having roof-accessed doors instead. The history of Tuzigoot goes back well before the pueblo was constructed and we’re here to tell you the story.

Tuzigoot National Monument © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

Our story begins 10,000 years ago. Hunters and gatherers passed through the lush Verde Valley in search of food. Human occupation of the Verde Valley can be traced back to about 700 when people lived in pit houses. Two Native American tribes, the Hohokam (“those who have gone”) and the Northern Sinagua (“those without water”), lived in the valley and directly influenced the Sinagua that lived at Tuzigoot. The Hohokam were excellent farmers and grew corn, beans, squash, and cotton. They even used irrigation canals. The Northern Sinagua Indians are credited for the buildings which were built in 1125. Built along the Verde River resources were plentiful. The peak time of Tuzigoot and Montezuma Castle came in the 1300s.

Tuzigoot National Monument © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

Mysteriously however, in 1400, the Southern Sinagua (who mainly inhabited Tuzigoot) left. Reasons for moving may include over population, consumption of resources, disease, drought, or even conflict with other tribes. For whatever the reason was, the Sinagua moved south into Hohokam villages.

After the people left the pueblo stood empty until the early 1930s when it was excavated by archeologists and then turned into a national monument on July 25th, 1939.

Tuzigoot National Monument © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

The pueblo shows us this ancient village built by the Sinagua people. The people who built and lived in the rooms of the Tuzigoot pueblo were part of a thriving community of farmers with trade connections stretching hundreds of miles. Their lives were part of a vast and complex society and they had a deep understanding of the world around them.

Tuzigoot National Monument © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

The site is currently comprised of 42 acres that includes the hilltop pueblo, cliffs and ridges in the valley, and the Tavasci Marsh, a natural riparian area surrounding an old curve of the Verde River. A paved, fully accessible trail takes you through the pueblo giving you a good idea of what it would have looked like. Though the views from the ruins alone are worth the walk, one room is reconstructed and you can enter it and see what it would have looked like when inhabited.

Explore the Tuzigoot museum which highlights ceramics, textiles, and tools found during the excavation of Tuzigoot pueblo. Spend time with a ranger and learn about the Sinagua and the lives they led in the Verde Valley.

Tuzigoot National Monument © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

Tavasci Marsh lie adjacent to the pueblo in an ancient oxbow isolated from the Verde River nearly 10,000 years ago. The marsh is primarily fed by Shea Spring located in the limestone beds on the northernmost edge of this ancient meander. These perennial wetlands have attracted people, plants, and animals for thousands of years.

Tuzigoot National Monument © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

Tavasci Marsh is one-of-a-kind hiking or birding experience. Hike down the steep dirt road into the bottom land which is the marsh. You are there but turn right and keep on going along the marsh through a small grove of cottonwoods and emerge onto a grass land area. Bear left through the grassland and find a foot bridge which crosses the exit ditch for the marsh. Once there, you might want to take a very short walk over to the Verde River for a beautiful view. Once you cross the foot bridge turn left on the old dirt road and you will join the trail down from Dead Horse Ranch State Park. Keep hiking until you get to where the trail narrows and eventually you will find yourself at the observation platform and the end of the trail.

Tuzigoot can be found in Clarkdale, Arizona, just west of Montezuma Castle and just north of Jerome. Visiting Tuzigoot is definitely worth your while!

Tuzigoot National Monument © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

Fact Box

Size: 42 acres

Established: July 25th, 1939

Fees: $10/adult; fees are valid for 7 days at both Tuzigoot and Montezuma Castle National Monuments

Along the trail to Tavasci Marsh © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

Operating hours: Open daily from 8 a.m. to 4:45 p.m.

Why go: This extensive Sinagua pueblo sits on a scenic hilltop with views of Jerome, Dead Horse Ranch State Park, and the Verde Valley. Check out the artifacts inside the visitor center.

Don’t miss: A paved trail loops around the structure, going in and out of some rooms making it easy to understand how people would have lived, played, and farmed here.

Along the trail to Tavasci Marsh © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

Insider tip: Take the easy walk to the Tavasci Marsh overlook. This pretty spring-fed wetland attracts birds, beavers, and other wildlife.

Along the way: Cottonwood is a wine lover’s destination. There are four tasting rooms on Main Street in Old Town and several wineries and tasting rooms are a short drive away in Page Springs, Jerome, and Clarkdale.

Getting there: Tuzigoot is 90 miles north of Phoenix.

Along the trail to Tavasci Marsh © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

Worth Pondering…

Traveling is almost like talking with men of other centuries.

—René Descartes

Exploring a Remarkable Pueblo: Besh Ba Gowah Archaeological Park

One mile south of Globe stands the ruins of the ancient Salado people who occupied the site nearly 800 years ago

This ancient village is known today as Besh Ba Gowah. The term was originally given by the Apaches to the early settlement of Globe. Roughly translated, the term means “Place of Metal.”

Besh Ba Gowan Archaeological Park and Museum © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

Besh Ba Gowah Archaeological Park and Museum offers visitors an opportunity to explore the ruins of this relatively advanced culture, a museum which houses a large collection of Salado pottery and artifacts, botanical gardens, and a gift shop. The adjacent Ethno-Botanical Garden illustrates native Arizona plants that were used in their daily lives.

Besh Ba Gowan Archaeological Park and Museum © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

Archaeologists consider Besh-Ba-Gowah a ceremonial, redistribution, and food storage complex. Salado Culture is identified as the cultural period from 1150 to 1450 in the Tonto Basin. Located at the confluence of Pinal Creek and Ice House Canyon Wash, Besh-Ba-Gowah Pueblo has one of the largest single site archaeological collections in the southwest and is one of the most significant finds of Southwest archaeology. Visitors walk through a 700-year-old Salado Culture pueblo, climb ladders to second story rooms, and view the typical furnishings of the era.

Besh Ba Gowan Archaeological Park and Museum © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

Besh-Ba-Gowah had about 400 rooms of these about 250 were ground floor rooms. Precise numbers are impossible due to modern destruction of sections. Entrance to the pueblo was via a long narrow ground level corridor covered by the second level. The corridor opened onto the main plaza. This may have had a defensive purpose.

The present day interpretive trail uses plaques to inform the visitor. It begins with the ancient entrance way to the main plaza which measures 40 x 88 feet. About 150 elaborate burials were placed under the plaza. Hereditary high status is suspected from burial evidence in the plaza.

Besh Ba Gowan Archaeological Park and Museum © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

The ruins had very few doors. Room access was by roof hatchways with ladders. Several reconstructed rooms with prehistoric contents are featured.

Cross-sections illustrate the roof construction of logs covered with layers of reeds, mats, and a thick coat of mud. The trail leads past the largest room in the pueblo, the so-called ceremonial room. A sipapu filled with turquoise dust and covered with a large quartz crystal was found in the room. The room contains built-in benches at various levels, four large roof support posts, and an altar on the east wall. Another unique feature of the pueblo is a small platform mound.

Besh Ba Gowan Archaeological Park and Museum © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

Situated between a great number of Southwestern cultures, the Salado traded actively with neighbors both near and far. Seashells discovered in the village show that the Salado traded with people from as far as Mexico and the Pacific Ocean.

Inside the museum two models of the ruins are presented. One shows the present condition. The other is a hypothetical reconstruction of the pueblo in 1325 A.D. It shows 20 courtyards and two three-story sections. One of the displays illustrates the archaeologist’s tool kit. Stone items on display include manos and metates, delicate carved stone palettes, stone axes and hoes, obsidian points, turquoise beads, local minerals, and a bow drill for bead making. Fabric artifacts include woven baskets and mats, sandals woven from yucca leaves, and fine woven cloth.

Besh Ba Gowan Archaeological Park and Museum © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

One wall of the museum is covered with shelves of ancient pottery two pieces deep. A wide and diverse range of pottery includes red and white ware and plain and decorated pots. Besh-Ba-Gowah has a high percentage of decorated ware.

The Salado crafters of these bowls painted them with a white paint and a black paint made from boiled plant residue, although they sometimes used red in the late-Tonto style. The Pinto polychrome, emerging around 1275, displayed simple geometric patterns, while the Gila and Tonto polychromes that developed later had more elaborate designs and embellishments. Gila polychromes are the most widely spread pottery style in the Southwest, ranging from Casas Grandes in Mexico to the Mimbres Valley in New Mexico, with the highest concentration of the pottery found in the Tonto Basin.

Besh Ba Gowan Archaeological Park and Museum © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

The museum includes an excellent bookstore and gift shop and a small theater. Videos inform visitors about the ancient cultures and the ruins. An excellent assortment of informative books and scientific journals can be accessed by visitors.

Worth Pondering…

History, although sometimes made up of the few acts of the great, is more often shaped by the many acts of the small.

—Mark Yost

4 Things to Know Before Visiting New Mexico

New Mexico may seem like it’s all about diverse cultures, world-class art, and landscapes fading away to glistening horizons—and it is, but that’s just the tip of the chile

New Mexico is truly an enchanted place. Explore everything the state has to offer—from breathtaking sunsets to fabulous local cuisine, New Mexico has it all.

D. H. Lawrence, writing in 1928, pretty much summed it up: “The moment I saw the brilliant, proud morning shine high up over the deserts of Santa Fe, something stood still in my soul.”

Albuquerque as seen from Petroglyph National Monument © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

The Land of Enchantment, the state motto of New Mexico, is certainly an apt description of a state with diverse landscape and population. This is a state in which the air is crisp, the water fresh, and the people warm and friendly. 

Elephant Butte Lake State Park © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

Over the years we have enjoyed several road trips through New Mexico. New Mexico is a truly unique place, with gorgeous landscapes ranging from white sand deserts to snow topped mountains. If you are an outdoorsy person, you will be in heaven. If you are more of a “sit in the air conditioning and drink margaritas” person, you will be in heaven too.

El Malpais National Monument © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

There is really something for everyone in this state. I will go into more detail about things to see and do in future posts, but here are four tips that will help you make the most of your trip!

Bosque del Apache National Wildlife Refuge © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

1. No adventure in New Mexico is complete until you have experienced the cuisine. The food is not like anything else in the country. The closest relative is Tex-Mex which is generally heavier and emphasizes meat, cheese, and cream sauces. New Mexican food relies more on fresh ingredients, chili sauces, and salsas.

Red chiles from Hatch © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

Right away we noticed the lack of cheese on the dishes. After spending numerous winters in Arizona and Texas, we expected as much shredded cheddar on our plate as anything else. Not the case in NM!

Cotton fields in the Mesilla Valley south of Las Cruces © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

Additionally, many ingredients are taken from Native American culture like hominy, blue masa, and lots of fresh vegetables. Of course, I also need to mention New Mexicans love their chiles!

La Posta de Mesilla is a great stop for foodies in the Las Cruces area © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

2. Chiles are the soul of New Mexican cooking, which blends Native American and Hispanic influences into a cuisine unto itself. New Mexico’s largest agricultural crop, chiles come in both red and green varieties. Across the state Chile is consumed at every meal, is celebrated in songs and at festivals, and is the subject of the Official New Mexico State Question, Red or Green? estimated to be uttered over 200,000 times a day in the state.

La Plazuela at La Fonda is a favorite of ours for New Mexico cuisine in Santa Fe.

Note: New Mexicans use the spelling chile, not chili, to mean the plant and the green or red sauce they make from it.

El Moro National Monument © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

If you don’t like spicy foods, don’t let that deter you from trying new things, just ask for the sauce on the side so you can judge the heat before adding it to your dish. Surprisingly, green chilies are actually hotter than the red ones. Consider ordering a side of guacamole if things got too spicy!

Carlsbad Caverns National Park © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

3. Elevation can be a major concern. When traveling throughout New Mexico there are significant changes in altitude. Las Cruces is 3,890 feet above sea level while Albuquerque 220 miles north on I-15 is around 5,200 feet sea level. If you are driving north to Santé Fe and Taos, it climbs upwards to 8,000 feet (and higher in the mountains). Altitude sickness can happen to anyone, no matter their fitness level.

Bitter Lake National Wildlife Refuge © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

Some basis tips: Take it slow and drink LOTS of water. More water than you think you need. If you start getting a headache or feel dizzy, stop and sit down. Allow time in your schedule for rest stops, especially when hiking.

Mesilla © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

Also important to note: all those refreshing margaritas at the end of the day will hit you much harder than normal! Sip with caution.

Plaza de Santa Fe © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

4. New Mexico’s vibrant native communities and cultures. From northwest to southeast and just about everywhere in between, New Mexico’s Native presence is obvious. It’s a presence that dates back more than two millennia, when early ancestral tribes lived as hunter-gatherers throughout the Southwest.

Spiral staircase in Loretto Chapel in Santa Fe © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

More than 1,000 years ago, some of these groups joined together to establish permanent settlements, commonly known as pueblos. It’s a way of life that continues to this very day among New Mexico’s 23 pueblos, tribes, and nations.

Mesilla Valley Bosque State Park © Rex Vogel, all rights reserved

Worth Pondering…

If you ever go to New Mexico, it will itch you for the rest of your life.

—Georgia O’Keeffe